Niacinamide (vitamin B3) – DNA repair after sun damage, thickens epidermis, promotes microcirculation, up-regulates fillagrin and ceramide production needed for hydration and barrier function, respectively, of the skin, is essential for cell energy production. In Epionce. Cheryl Lee MD TrueLipids, iS Clinical, Dermend, Sircuitskin.
Nettle Extract – anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, healing, antioxidant, softens skin. SkinCeuticals.
Norwegian Kelp – see Ascophyllum Nodosum Extract.